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March 8, By Professor R. Carlisle "Carl" Smith. Understanding codes and standards is very important for becoming a welding inspector. Nearly every job that requires inspection references a code or standard. AWS produces both codes and standards. These three entities publish the most frequently referenced codes and standards in the U. Figure 1. X series for piping of different types, for example, pressure or process piping. It includes destructive and nondestructive testing methods and requirements for results.
This standard differs from the other codes and standards in the testing methods for procedures and welders. Also, tensile tests are required for welder qualification, as well as procedure qualification. The other codes and standards do not require tensile testing for welder qualification, only for procedure testing. In most cases, the AWS codes and standards are industry-specific. The most familiar one is the D1. It has grown from a few pages to more than , including the index, and is a very challenging document for most users.
Even some welding engineers do not fully comprehend all of the information in the book. This is the main reason that I strongly suggest that anyone who is using or plans to use this code for the CWI examination should participate in the Code Clinic. It is commonly believed that if someone can comprehend one code or standard, he or she can read and understand any of them. This is not necessarily true. Fortunately, Annexes and Commentaries in the material help, but they are too time-consuming in a timed test setting.
Again, the Code Clinic is a must. The code and standard portion of the CWI examination is the shortest in terms of time allowed. Some refer to it as the easiest. A lot of this speculation is based on which code or standard is used during the test. The basic principles are much the same in all the codes and standards. All present the usable material types and the nomenclature for each metal. The P number is an essential variable for a welding procedure specification WPS.
For instance, a welder qualified for P-1 material mild steel may be qualified to weld P-1 through P, P, and P through P materials provided other essential variables are not violated. The API standard uses the yield strength to identify base materials. Groupings also are provided in this standard. AP also references the filler metal specifications, classifications, and groupings for the various processes. At last there is some cooperation between the codes and standards.
The industry has decided that it is not feasible to duplicate all of the welding material nomenclature. AWS has established these numbers and letters for many years, and the other codes and standards are sensible for using them. ASME is still a little stubborn when it comes to filler metal and electrode specifications.
For instance, an AWS A5. You will be taking your own code or standard to the examination. This is advantageous in that you may tab the sections and make your own notations for the things you want to remember. No matter which code or standard you decide to use, each has the same basic sections. Due to time and space limitations, the standard that this article references is API For the study of this article, please forget my statement in previous articles that there is no such thing as a butt weld, only butt joints.
The title page. A question on my examination asked how the code or standard was identified. For AWS D1. This may sound trivial, but it is not. The contents pages. In case you misplaced a tab or did not tab the section you are looking for, these pages are very helpful. Terms and Definitions section. You should not only tab this section, but also study it thoroughly. Some candidates no doubt are familiar with these items, but they are not the same in all codes and standards.
The small paragraph titled 4. Even the flame characteristics must be the same when gas welding procedures and welder qualifications are being made. Section 4, Materials. This section covers materials, including some very specific rules and the use of API specification 5L, which depicts the wall thicknesses, material strength, and other pertinent information for piping.
The ASTM specification also is referenced in this section, and the chemical composition and production methods are noted. Neither the set temperature for storage nor the amount of time the material is allowed to be exposed to the atmosphere is specified in this section as they are in the AWS and ASME codes. The section states that coated materials must be protected from moisture and may not be used if a sign of damage or deterioration is shown. Another part of this standard that is a bit different from the other codes and standards is the shielding gas section.
It identifies the types of gases and requires that they be qualified to the material type and the welding process. Also, requirements for storage and storage containers are noted in this section. Section 5. This section describes all of the requirements for qualifying welding procedures, including the essential variables. Study this section very carefully, and do not confuse these requirements with the other codes and standards.
For instance, the number of beads and bead sequence is a requirement not stated in the other codes and standards. Watch for the nick break test and how it is to be performed Figure 3. This test is not found in the other codes and standards. Section 5, paragraph 5. Section 6. This section also is another one that is different from the other codes and standards.
The same information is found in Section 6. Perhaps the most significant difference is that there are two major types of welder qualifications: They may be welded in the 2G, 5G, or 6G position. A multiple qualification requires you to prepare a branch connection by cutting a hole in the run pipe and welding in the branch connection. The run pipe shall include a test like the single qualification test, and then the branch connection must be made. The pipe for a multiple qualification test must be at least 6.
Another noteworthy difference is the number of specimens cut from a pipe for a WPS and a welder qualification. The number of specimens to be cut is based partially on the pipe size. The procedure qualification pipe requires more specimens than the welder qualification pipe. Notice that the individual specimens are tested in different ways. Some are for nick breaks, some are guided bends, and some are to be tensile tests Figure 5. You may be tested by radiography at the discretion of the company.
If there are unavoidable reasons for failure, you may be given a second opportunity to test. Another test will not be allowed until proof of further training is presented. The results of the tests must meet all the requirements of Section 9. The company must maintain a list of the qualified welders. A retest may be required if there is a question about your competence. Section 7. This section covers requirements for the design and preparation of joints for production welding.
In general, the material must be clean and free from laminations, tears, grease, and other contaminants that may adversely affect the weld quality. The joint design shall be the same as the WPS requirement. The allowance for alignment is stated in paragraph 7. Hammering can be used, but it must be kept to a minimum. Lineup clamps also can be used within the allowances described in the WPS. If clamp removal is allowed by the WPS before the root bead is completed, the bead must be evenly spaced around the complete diameter of the pipe.
This section describes the clearance of the pipe from the ground; cleaning between beads; welding position; and the number of filler and cover beads. The identification of the welder who made the welds and the preheat and postweld heat treatment also are described in Section 7. Section 8. This section covers inspecting and testing production welds. The frequency and type of inspection is at the discretion of the company.
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